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CrystFEL tutorial

Welcome to the CrystFEL tutorial!

This tutorial covers most of the main steps of using CrystFEL, and is based on processing some freely available LCLS data. The aim of this page is to give an overall idea of how the programs fit together and equip you with the knowledge you need to get started with processing a serial crystallography data set on your own.

The estimated time required to complete this tutorial is about three hours, provided that everything is already installed and the data set has already been downloaded and unpacked (the downloading and unpacking is described in step 1, the installation is described on a separate page). Step 10, in which the entire dataset is processed, is the most time-consuming and may push the required time higher if a fast computer is not available.

Prerequisites

You'll need CrystFEL version 0.6.0 or higher to follow this tutorial, with some steps needing a more recent version. You'll also need MOSFLM installed, because this tutorial will use it for indexing the patterns. Check the installation guide for instructions. Familiarity with a Unix command line environment is assumed.

Sections of this tutorial

  1. Download some data
  2. Get a geometry file
  3. Examine the patterns
  4. Create a list of filenames to process
  5. Examine the peaks stored in the HDF5 files
  6. Optimise the peak detection parameters
  7. Determine the unit cell parameters
  8. Index the patterns using Bravais lattice information only
  9. Check and optimise the detector geometry
  10. Index the patterns using unit cell parameters
  11. Evaluate the quality of the indexing
  12. Check for detector saturation
  13. Merge the intensities
  14. Merge the data with scaling, partiality and post-refinement
  15. Calculate figures of merit
  16. Export data to CCP4, XSCALE and others
  17. Conclusion

1. Download some data

Download one of the "CrystFEL format" tar.gz files from the CXIDB:

Download link — 5HT2B receptor data from LCLS, CXI endstation: Liu et al., Science 342 (2013) p1521

cxidb-21-run0130.tar is the file which was used below, but you needn't download the entire of any file - just cancel the download after a few hundred megabytes, and you should still be able to unpack the files contained in the partially downloaded file. Yes, SFX data sets are big ... !

Unpack the archive using tar:

$ ls
cxidb-21-run0130.tar
$ tar -xf cxidb-21-run0130.tar
$ ls
cxidb-21-run0130      cxidb-21-run0131  cxidb-21-run0133  cxidb-21-run0135  cxidb-21-run0137  cxidb-21-run0139
cxidb-21-run0130.tar  cxidb-21-run0132  cxidb-21-run0134  cxidb-21-run0136  cxidb-21-run0138
$ ls cxidb-21-run0135
badpixelmap.h5  cleaned.txt  frames.txt   original.ini          r0135-class1-log.txt               xtcfiles.txt
bsub.log        darkcal.h5   gaincal.h5   peaks.txt             r0135-detector0-class0-sum.h5
cheetah.ini     data1        geometry.h5  psana.cfg             r0135-detector0-class1-sum.h5
cheetah.out     data2        log.txt      r0135-class0-log.txt  r0135-integratedEnergySpectrum.h5
$ ls cxidb-21-run0135/data1
LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0135_015424_1c1a3.h5  LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0135_015545_3399.h5  LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0135_015705_a473.h5
LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0135_015424_1c221.h5  LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0135_015545_33c3.h5  LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0135_015706_a5f3.h5
LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0135_015424_1c23f.h5  LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0135_015545_33c9.h5  LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0135_015706_a61d.h5
LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0135_015424_1c2e7.h5  LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0135_015545_3441.h5  LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0135_015706_a6b3.h5
LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0135_015425_1c3fb.h5  LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0135_015545_34d7.h5  LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0135_015706_a6dd.h5
LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0135_015425_1c401.h5  LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0135_015545_34dd.h5  LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0135_015707_a72b.h5
LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0135_015425_1c44f.h5  LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0135_015545_34ef.h5  LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0135_015707_a73d.h5
(...lots more files...)
$

CrystFEL takes the data in HDF5 format, which itself can organise the data in a variety of different ways. For the dataset suggested here from the CXIDB, there is one HDF5 file per frame of data, so things are quite intuitive. However, perhaps you are going through this tutorial with a different dataset. More recently acquired datasets consist of a smaller number of larger files, where each one contains many frames. In this case, the file with the real data will almost certainly be the largest file in the data folder, probably with extension .cxi. Don't worry about the differences in file format, though - apart from a few small things, CrystFEL takes care of it!

2. Get a geometry file

Many recent X-ray detectors, particularly those in use at FEL facilities, consist of many small panels. Take a look, for example, at this photo of the CSPAD detector used at the CXI endstation at LCLS, where the 5HT2B data was collected. The CrystFEL "geometry file" tells CrystFEL everything it needs to know about how the detector is laid out physically, as well as how the data is laid out in the HDF5 file - whether there's one frame per file or many, where to find the photon energy/X-ray wavelength, and so on.

There is a geometry file for the 5HT2B data on the CXIDB page from which you downloaded the data at the beginning, but it's in a slightly old format for an older version of CrystFEL. To update for the latest version, a few extra lines need to be added near the top, and some other lines can be deleted. Here is a version which has had these changes made already:

Download link — Geometry file for 5HT2B CXIDB data

Save the file to your working folder.

3. Examine the patterns

You can examine them with any HDF5 viewer you like - there are several. There are also probably HDF5 bindings for your own favourite scripting language in case you want to do some kind of quantitative evaluation. CrystFEL provides a viewer called hdfsee, so just run hdfsee on one of the files you just unpacked. You'll also need to provide the name of the geometry file so that it can understand the file and show the panels in the correct layout:

$ hdfsee cxidb-21-run0135/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0135_015701_9ea9.h5 -g 5HT2B-Liu-2013.geom

You'll probably need to use "Boost Intensity..." (in the "View" menu, or press F5) to be able to see anything: try a value of 5 for a start. Experiment with "Set Binning..." (also under "View", or press F3) and "View Numbers..." (under "Tools", or press F2, then click somewhere in the image to see the actual numbers in the image data).

You should also be able to plot resolution rings using View->Resolution Rings (or just press F9). Previous versions of CrystFEL used a "beam description file" to provide some of this information, and you can find a beam description file for older versions of CrystFEL on the CXIDB page. You can ignore this since version 0.6.0.

Some simple HDF5 layouts can be viewed without a geometry file (just omit -g 5HT2B-Liu-2013.geom in the command above). If you're using data which has an individual HDF5 for each frame, give this a try. You'll see the detector panels rearranged into a more compact pattern, which is the way the data is actually laid out in the file. The geometry file tells CrystFEL how to put the panels together properly.

4. Create a list of filenames to process

The central program in CrystFEL, indexamajig, works in a batch mode processing many files with one invokation. You must prepare a list of files for it to process, which we'll call files.lst. A good way to generate this file is to use find. Having done that (look at the example below if you don't know how), use head, or your favourite text editor, to examine the list to check it's worked correctly. You can also use wc -l to see how many files you have — 5775 in this example, but you might have more or fewer depending on which file you downloaded from the CXIDB.

$ find cxidb-21-run013* -name 'LCLS*.h5' -print > files.lst
$ head -n 10 files.lst
cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003712_4e09.h5
cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003717_55a7.h5
cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003730_684f.h5
cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003823_b32b.h5
cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003831_bd8d.h5
cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003832_bead.h5
cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003832_bf5b.h5
cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003834_c195.h5
cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003835_c2c7.h5
cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003844_d09b.h5
$ wc -l files.lst
5775 files.lst
$

Note the careful use of selection criteria in find to exclude some of the other HDF5 files which came with the data from the CXIDB, such as the bad pixel maps, gain calibration files and so on.

Note further that 5775 is not a huge number of patterns, probably not enough to solve the structure. Normally, about ten thousand good quality patterns would be required, with the exact number depending strongly on the quality of patterns and the symmetry of the structure. Nevertheless, this list of images will be suitable for demonstrating the principles involved, and allow the steps of the tutorial to be performed in a reasonable amount of time. If you want to go further and try to generate electron density maps at the end of the tutorial, you could download all of the 5HT2B data from the CXIDB — and wait a lot longer for each processing step to complete!

If you're using multi-image files, the search criteria might be different. For data files from SACLA, you should change LCLS*.h5 to run*.h5, and for files from recent versions of Cheetah you should use *-class1.cxi (note that things get a bit more complicated for time-resolved experiments, so be careful). Obviously, if each file contains more than one frame then the list of files will be much shorter and will not be the actual number of frames to be processed. indexamajig knows to automatically process all of the frames in each file. If this isn't what you want, there is a tool called list_events which you can use to create a list containing each individual frame in the files, but you don't need to worry about that for now.

5. Examine the peaks stored in the HDF5 files

These HDF5 files were written by Cheetah. Cheetah is a hit-finding program which locates candidate crystal diffraction patterns by searching for peaks (hopefully Bragg peaks) and requiring a certain number of them. Conveniently, Cheetah stores its list of peaks along with the image data in the HDF5 file. This section describes how to extract and view the peak information. The next section describes how to search for peaks "ab initio" using CrystFEL's built-in peak search methods. For a real data set, you only need to do one of these steps! Since accurate hit-finding in Cheetah relies on good peak detection, provided that the hit finding results are satisfactory it's likely that Cheetah's peak lists are pretty good. Therefore it's usually better, not to mention quite a lot easier, to use Cheetah's peaks, and only fall back on CrystFEL's algorithms if there are problems.

To extract and view the peak list information, you can run indexamajig without indexing anything. Indexamajig will run all the normal parts of its processing pipeline, but will not proceed to the indexing and integration stages. You can then examine the peaks. Here's how you can do this:

$ indexamajig -i files.lst -g 5HT2B-Liu-2013.geom --peaks=hdf5 -o tutorial.stream
You didn't specify an indexing method, so I  won't try  to index anything.
If that isn't what you wanted, re-run with --indexing=.
WARNING: You did not specify --int-radius.
WARNING: I will use the default values, which are probably not appropriate for your patterns.
No unit cell given.
   0 indexable out of    3 processed ( 0.0%),    0 crystals so far.    3 images processed since the last message.
   0 indexable out of    7 processed ( 0.0%),    0 crystals so far.    4 images processed since the last message.
   0 indexable out of   10 processed ( 0.0%),    0 crystals so far.    3 images processed since the last message.
   0 indexable out of   14 processed ( 0.0%),    0 crystals so far.    4 images processed since the last message.
   0 indexable out of   18 processed ( 0.0%),    0 crystals so far.    4 images processed since the last message.
   0 indexable out of   22 processed ( 0.0%),    0 crystals so far.    4 images processed since the last message.
^C
$

If you're using multi-frame files in "CXIDB" format (filename ending in .cxi), replace --peaks=hdf5 with --peaks=cxi, because this type of file contains the peak information in a slightly different format. In this case, you should make the same substitution everywhere else you see --peaks=hdf5.

You have to specify rather a lot of parameters for indexamajig. Here is a deconstruction of the above command line:

For this initial step, you needn't wait for indexamajig to finish processing all the patterns, so press Ctrl+C to interrupt it after about 20 images (which shouldn't take long). You just need enough processed images to see whether the peak detection is working properly or not. Note also the warning messages which appeared right as indexamajig started. At this stage, these messages can be ignored — the first one simply reminds us that the no indexing will be performed (which is what we want!), and the second one will only become important when we move on to the later stages of processing.

Now, use the check-peak-detection script to visualise the results. This script will run hdfsee on each image in turn, but this time there will be circles around the detected peaks. After you close the window, the script will open a new instance of hdfsee with the next image. To stop this cycle, press Ctrl+C in the terminal from which you ran check-peak-detection.

The check-peak-detection script can be found in the scripts folder in the CrystFEL distribution. Alternatively, you can download it from this site. After downloading this script (as well as the other ones later on in the tutorial), you may have to mark it as executable using chmod +x check-peak-detection. As input, it takes the stream output from indexamajig in the previous step. Any other arguments you specify (apart from --indexed and --not-indexed which will be discussed later) will be passed to hdfsee. For example, you could specify a geometry file or intensity boost factor — run man hdfsee for a full list of possibilities. You are encouraged to edit the script in a text editor to add your own default arguments so you don't have to type them in every time you use the script.

$ cp ~/crystfel/scripts/check-peak-detection .
$ chmod +x check-peak-detection
$ ./check-peak-detection tutorial.stream -g 5HT2B-Liu-2013.geom --int-boost=5
Extra arguments for hdfsee: -g 5HT2B-Liu-2013.geom
Viewing cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003712_4e09.h5
Viewing cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003717_55a7.h5
Viewing cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003730_684f.h5
^C
$

6. Optimise the peak detection parameters

If the HDF5 peaks looked OK, then you can skip this step. "OK" here means that the peaks which were found all look like real Bragg peaks to you. You can recognise this because they should appear in what looks like some kind of regular pattern, with reasonably even density of peaks from the centre of the pattern up to some resolution limit (usually not all the way to the edge of the detector). If the peak detection is not OK, this step describes how to repeat it using CrystFEL's built-in peak search methods.

The accuracy of the peak search is one of the most critical factors in the success of the indexing process, so don't rush this step!

$ indexamajig -i files.lst -g 5HT2B-Liu-2013.geom --peaks=zaef --threshold=300 --min-gradient=500000 --min-snr=5 --int-radius=3,4,5 -o tutorial.stream
You didn't specify an indexing method, so I  won't try  to index anything.
If that isn't what you wanted, re-run with --indexing=.
No unit cell given.
   0 indexable out of    3 processed ( 0.0%),    0 crystals so far.    3 images processed since the last message.
   0 indexable out of    7 processed ( 0.0%),    0 crystals so far.    4 images processed since the last message.
   0 indexable out of   11 processed ( 0.0%),    0 crystals so far.    4 images processed since the last message.
^C
$

Here is a deconstruction of the above command line:

  • indexamajig — the name of the program
  • -i files.lst — process the files named in files.lst
  • -g 5HT2B-Liu-2013.geom — specify the detector geometry file to use
  • --peaks=zaef — use CrystFEL's internal gradient search for peak detection
  • --threshold=300 --min-gradient=500000 --min-snr=5 — the peak detection parameters
  • --int-radius=3,4,5 — specify the radii of the concentric circles defining the integration area around each peak
  • -o tutorial.stream — write output to tutorial.stream

Note that the integration radius parameter, which wasn't necessary when using HDF5 peaks (at least at this stage), is now quite important. The first of the three numbers should be roughly the same size as the largest spot in the images, with the other two being a pixel or two larger, but not bigger than half the closest separation between spots in the image.

Like before, you needn't wait for indexamajig to finish processing all the patterns, so press Ctrl+C to interrupt it after about 20 images. You just need enough processed images to see whether the peak detection is working properly or not.

Now, use check-peak-detection just like before. If you've already copied check-peak-detection to your working folder and marked it as executable with chmod, you don't need to do it again:

$ cp ~/crystfel/scripts/check-peak-detection .
$ chmod +x check-peak-detection
$ ./check-peak-detection tutorial.stream -g 5HT2B-Liu-2013.geom --int-boost=5
Extra arguments for hdfsee: -g 5HT2B-Liu-2013.geom
Viewing cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003712_4e09.h5
Viewing cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003717_55a7.h5
Viewing cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003730_684f.h5
^C
$

You should find that the parameters given above are close to optimal for the data in this tutorial, but perhaps you can do better! Simply alter the parameters in the indexamajig command line and repeat until you're satisfied. Read man indexamajig for full details on what the parameters actually do. For a very short summary: make the numbers larger if too many false peaks are found, and make them smaller if too many real peaks are missed.

7. Determine the unit cell parameters

To index the patterns for real, you need to run indexamajig again with slightly different parameters. Simply add "--indexing=mosflm-raw-nolatt". This will tell indexamajig to use MOSFLM to try to index each image using no prior information at all.

$ indexamajig -i files.lst -g 5HT2B-Liu-2013.geom --peaks=hdf5 --indexing=mosflm-raw-nolatt --int-radius=3,4,5 -o tutorial.stream
No unit cell given.
Prepared indexing method 0: mosflm-raw-nolatt-nocell
   0 indexable out of   15 processed ( 0.0%),    0 crystals so far.    2 images processed since the last message.
   0 indexable out of   16 processed ( 0.0%),    0 crystals so far.    1 images processed since the last message.
   2 indexable out of   18 processed (11.1%),    2 crystals so far.    2 images processed since the last message.
   3 indexable out of   19 processed (15.8%),    3 crystals so far.    1 images processed since the last message.
   4 indexable out of   21 processed (19.0%),    4 crystals so far.    2 images processed since the last message.
   4 indexable out of   24 processed (16.7%),    4 crystals so far.    3 images processed since the last message.
   5 indexable out of   26 processed (19.2%),    5 crystals so far.    2 images processed since the last message.
   5 indexable out of   27 processed (18.5%),    5 crystals so far.    1 images processed since the last message.
(...)
  92 indexable out of  293 processed (31.4%),   92 crystals so far.    1 images processed since the last message.
  93 indexable out of  294 processed (31.6%),   93 crystals so far.    1 images processed since the last message.
  94 indexable out of  295 processed (31.9%),   94 crystals so far.    1 images processed since the last message.
  96 indexable out of  297 processed (32.3%),   96 crystals so far.    2 images processed since the last message.
  97 indexable out of  299 processed (32.4%),   97 crystals so far.    2 images processed since the last message.
  97 indexable out of  300 processed (32.3%),   97 crystals so far.    1 images processed since the last message.
  99 indexable out of  302 processed (32.8%),   99 crystals so far.    2 images processed since the last message.
 100 indexable out of  303 processed (33.0%),  100 crystals so far.    1 images processed since the last message.
^C
$

The progress will be much slower than in the previous step because indexamajig is now doing much more processing for each pattern — the full indexing and integration. These 303 patterns took about 15 minutes to process on my desktop computer. If you have multiple CPUs, you might be able to increase the speed by adding -j n to the command line, where n is the number of analyses to run in parallel. However, the speed of disk access is likely to be a limiting factor if you use a large number for n.

Like before, you needn't wait for all 5775 patterns to be processed. About 100 indexable patterns will be sufficient for this step.

Note the addition of --int-radius=3,4,5 in the command line. This isn't strictly necessary at this stage if we're using --peaks=hdf5 — it'll only become critical when we get to the final integration before mergng the intensities — but it's good to get into the habit of setting a value here.

In this example, 100 out of 303 patterns could be indexed, an "indexing yield" of 33%. However, the indexing method mosflm-raw-nolatt performs no check that all the patterns have been indexed using a similar unit cell. The next step is to examine the unit cell parameters that were obtained for each pattern and look for the most "popular" ones, because these should be the actual cell parameters for structure. Inspect the output file (tutorial.stream) using a text editor, or less, more or head, and you'll see that it is a simple text file which contains all the information about each pattern. Be warned, the file is big — about 65,000 lines in this example — and might crash your text editor! The standard Unix utilities (more, less, head, tail and so on) will have no problems. One of the most interesting lines at this stage occurs once for every crystal found by the program, and looks like this:

Cell parameters 6.14805 12.22967 16.77475 nm, 89.78405 90.45697 90.13755 deg

This line tells you the axis lengths and inter-axial angles for the unit cell for the individual crystal. You will also see lines like these:

lattice_type = orthorhombic
centering = C
unique_axis = *

You can scroll through the entire stream looking for trends in these numbers, or you can extract all the information at once using grep:

$ grep "Cell parameters" tutorial.stream
Cell parameters 6.14805 12.22967 16.77475 nm, 89.78405 90.45697 90.13755 deg
Cell parameters 6.15289 12.19641 16.63078 nm, 89.78765 89.79480 90.46709 deg
Cell parameters 5.97561 12.13522 16.89476 nm, 90.78503 93.59428 90.81399 deg
Cell parameters 12.18912 6.17295 16.39607 nm, 90.86867 90.15505 89.74568 deg
Cell parameters 6.81768 33.74474 6.12855 nm, 89.82876 116.45735 90.04534 deg
Cell parameters 6.20004 11.92449 16.74325 nm, 89.64280 91.18385 88.95073 deg
Cell parameters 12.02876 6.10559 16.58364 nm, 91.19543 93.13250 90.86147 deg
Cell parameters 6.06749 6.79083 16.68313 nm, 88.09011 89.22386 64.14316 deg
Cell parameters 6.09873 12.31648 15.61698 nm, 93.25994 87.03911 91.21955 deg
Cell parameters 6.07975 12.28868 16.72432 nm, 89.82163 89.94087 90.88785 deg
(... lots more lines ...)
Cell parameters 6.15505 12.28574 16.94953 nm, 89.62354 89.85401 89.95540 deg
Cell parameters 6.11477 6.74352 16.68338 nm, 86.48418 87.75150 64.22315 deg
Cell parameters 6.30086 12.32689 16.39489 nm, 90.59447 89.32034 90.08650 deg
Cell parameters 6.16207 6.86996 16.92059 nm, 89.93645 90.23003 116.76895 deg
Cell parameters 6.16388 12.27865 16.99137 nm, 90.55909 90.38091 89.72845 deg
$ grep "centering" tutorial.stream
centering = C
centering = C
centering = C
centering = C
centering = C
centering = C
centering = C
centering = P
centering = C
centering = C
(... lots more lines ...)
centering = C
centering = P
centering = P
centering = P
centering = C
$

A definite trend seems to be emerging, of an orthorhombic C cell with axes close to 61.5, 123 and 168 A (note the units in the stream)! You could import the lists of numbers into your favourite graphing program to make a nice histogram. You can also use the CrystFEL Unit Cell Explorer to examine the distributions. Run it with the stream as an argument:

$ cell_explorer tutorial.stream
Loaded 100 cells from 303 chunks

A window should appear which looks something like this:

The graphs for the angles have very sharp peaks at 90 degrees, so it's clear that the unit cell is at least orthorhombic (or very close to orthorhombic). There are sharp peaks for all three of a, b and c, and the peaks are mostly purple, which corresponds (as shown in the key top right) to a C-centered cell. Note that there is a small peak in the a graph just over 120 A, which matches the large peak in the b graph. This kind of thing often happens when the axes get indexed the wrong way round by accident. Click and drag the graphs to move them around, use the scroll wheel to zoom in and out, and press the plus or minus keys to change the binning. In this way, you can examine the biggest peaks in more detail:

Hold down shift and click/drag to select the peaks in red, then press Ctrl+F to fit Gaussians to the peaks. This produces estimates of the unit cell parameters and the widths of their distributions:

At this point, it's important to apply some crystallographic intelligence. Are the parameters selected by the indexing algorithm really the crystallographically conventional parameters for the lattice? Here are two "classic" cases to watch out for:

There are, of course, many other possibilities. Fortunately, none of them apply in this case.

Let's proceed with the hypothesis that the lattice is orthorhombic C. Before we make our final determination of the target unit cell for indexing, we can use the lattice type information to clean up the indexing results a bit. This will be done in the next step.

8. Index the patterns using Bravais lattice information only

If you were very confident about the cell parameters determined in the previous step (or determined some other way), you could skip this step. However, it's better to work through it to make sure everything is working properly.

Even though we know the lattice parameters, it's possible to index the patterns in a more consistent way than the previous step without making use of them. Instead, we'll use only the Bravais lattice, i.e. our knowledge that the lattice is orthorhombic C. To do this, change the indexing method in the indexamajig command line again, this time to mosflm-raw-latt. Note that nolatt has been changed to latt, which instructs it to use the Bravais lattice information to help index the patterns by telling MOSFLM to search only for indexing solutions with the correct type of Bravais lattice. The unit cell parameters themselves will still not be checked, and indeed so far we haven't told indexamajig what we expect the parameters to be.

Information about lattice types and unit cell parameters is given to CrystFEL by means of a "CrystFEL unit cell file". Simply open a text editor, and put the following lines inside it:

CrystFEL unit cell file version 1.0

lattice_type = orthorhombic
centering = C

Save the file as "5ht2b.cell" and run indexamajig again with the additional option -p 5ht2b.cell. Easy! Don't forget to change the indexing method as described above.

$ indexamajig -i files.lst -g 5HT2B-Liu-2013.geom --peaks=hdf5 --int-radius=3,4,5 -o tutorial.stream --indexing=mosflm-raw-latt -p 5ht2b.cell
orthorhombic C, unique axis ?.
Unit cell parameters are not specified.
Prepared indexing method 0: mosflm-raw-latt-nocell
   0 indexable out of    2 processed ( 0.0%),    0 crystals so far.    2 images processed since the last message.
   0 indexable out of    4 processed ( 0.0%),    0 crystals so far.    2 images processed since the last message.
   0 indexable out of    4 processed ( 0.0%),    0 crystals so far.    0 images processed since the last message.
   0 indexable out of    4 processed ( 0.0%),    0 crystals so far.    0 images processed since the last message.
   0 indexable out of    4 processed ( 0.0%),    0 crystals so far.    0 images processed since the last message.
   0 indexable out of    4 processed ( 0.0%),    0 crystals so far.    0 images processed since the last message.
   0 indexable out of    4 processed ( 0.0%),    0 crystals so far.    0 images processed since the last message.
   0 indexable out of    4 processed ( 0.0%),    0 crystals so far.    0 images processed since the last message.
   0 indexable out of    4 processed ( 0.0%),    0 crystals so far.    0 images processed since the last message.
WARNING: 14 implausibly negative reflections in cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003831_bd8d.h5 (none)
   1 indexable out of    5 processed (20.0%),    1 crystals so far.    1 images processed since the last message.
   1 indexable out of    7 processed (14.3%),    1 crystals so far.    2 images processed since the last message.
   1 indexable out of    9 processed (11.1%),    1 crystals so far.    2 images processed since the last message.
Too few paired peaks (1) to determine radius
Too few paired peaks (1) to refine orientation.
   1 indexable out of   11 processed ( 9.1%),    1 crystals so far.    2 images processed since the last message.
...
 100 indexable out of  328 processed (30.5%),  100 crystals so far.    2 images processed since the last message.
 100 indexable out of  330 processed (30.3%),  100 crystals so far.    2 images processed since the last message.
 101 indexable out of  331 processed (30.5%),  101 crystals so far.    1 images processed since the last message.
 102 indexable out of  333 processed (30.6%),  102 crystals so far.    2 images processed since the last message.
 102 indexable out of  335 processed (30.4%),  102 crystals so far.    2 images processed since the last message.
 102 indexable out of  337 processed (30.3%),  102 crystals so far.    2 images processed since the last message.
 103 indexable out of  338 processed (30.5%),  103 crystals so far.    1 images processed since the last message.
 103 indexable out of  340 processed (30.3%),  103 crystals so far.    2 images processed since the last message.
 103 indexable out of  342 processed (30.1%),  103 crystals so far.    2 images processed since the last message.
 104 indexable out of  343 processed (30.3%),  104 crystals so far.    1 images processed since the last message.
^C
$

Once again, you only need to wait for about 100 indexed patterns.

Notice the warnings about "14 implausibly negative reflections" and "Too few paired peaks". You probably saw some of these in the earlier steps as well. The first message appears whenever any of the reflections in the pattern were measured as having an intensity negative by more than five sigma. On statistical grounds, this should not happen by chance more than once in an entire large dataset, so if it happens on the first pattern, as it does here, it probably indicates that something isn't quite right. There are a number of possible explanations, such as a misindexed pattern or a bad pixel on the detector. The second warning happens when the pattern could be indexed but the later refinement stages didn't work, and usually indicates that the initial indexing was simply not correct. In both cases, the problematic reflections and patterns are automatically filtered out, so you don't have to worry too much unless you see a very large number of warnings.

Repeat the grep and cell_explorer parts of step 7. This time, the results should be much more consistent:

$ grep "Cell parameters" tutorial.stream
Cell parameters 29.57375 79.38331 19.61239 nm, 90.30352 90.46590 90.12323 deg
Cell parameters 6.15395 12.22018 16.78923 nm, 89.66232 90.56529 90.33316 deg
Cell parameters 6.15133 12.19475 16.61879 nm, 89.76745 89.81727 90.47255 deg
Cell parameters 6.03929 12.33804 16.80639 nm, 91.45256 91.36531 89.79536 deg
Cell parameters 6.12948 12.14581 16.60192 nm, 90.79067 90.30718 89.76016 deg
Cell parameters 6.10451 12.24309 20.84695 nm, 89.43592 87.75337 90.10239 deg
Cell parameters 6.17432 12.15292 16.69578 nm, 90.60305 89.60859 90.37155 deg
Cell parameters 6.19681 11.95545 16.71464 nm, 89.62272 91.03608 88.98001 deg
(...lots more lines...)
Cell parameters 6.16257 12.26617 16.93921 nm, 90.05327 89.71895 90.15376 deg
Cell parameters 6.16533 12.27137 17.01457 nm, 90.91694 90.42565 89.67994 deg
Cell parameters 6.17520 12.29109 16.89698 nm, 90.08418 90.92872 90.02211 deg
Cell parameters 6.17567 12.21934 16.97071 nm, 88.03281 90.62335 90.84716 deg
Cell parameters 6.17653 12.33554 16.83063 nm, 89.90496 90.34087 90.82327 deg
$ grep "lattice_type" tutorial.stream
lattice_type = orthorhombic
lattice_type = orthorhombic
lattice_type = orthorhombic
lattice_type = orthorhombic
lattice_type = orthorhombic
lattice_type = orthorhombic
lattice_type = orthorhombic
(lots more lines)
lattice_type = orthorhombic
lattice_type = orthorhombic
lattice_type = orthorhombic
lattice_type = orthorhombic
lattice_type = orthorhombic
$ grep "centering" tutorial.stream
centering = C
centering = C
centering = C
centering = C
centering = C
centering = C
centering = C
centering = C
(lots more lines)
centering = C
centering = C
centering = C
centering = C
$ cell_explorer tutorial.stream
Loaded 105 cells from 344 chunks

Note that all of the indexing results had orthorhombic C lattices (exactly what we asked it for!) and the histograms in the Unit Cell Explorer become much cleaner than before (click the image for a larger version):

9. Check and optimise the detector geometry

This is a good point at which to check and optimise the detector geometry. Even if the geometry file is supposedly correct for the experiment, it's best to check that, for example, the beam position hasn't drifted. Fortunately, CrystFEL has already done most of the work for you.

This step assumes that you're using a very recent version of CrystFEL, either a development snapshot or the Git version. The next release of CrystFEL after 0.6.0 will include the necessary features.

After indexing each pattern, indexamajig runs a short optimisation procedure, adjusting the unit cell parameters, orientation and beam centre position to get the best possible agreement between the observed and predicted peak locations at the same time as making sure that the observed peaks correspond to Bragg positions as closely as possible. The procedure is similar to those described by Ginn et al. and Kabsch (section 3.5.2). The required beam shift (equivalently considered as a shift of the detector) is recorded in the stream for each pattern:

$ grep "predict_refine/det_shift" tutorial.stream
predict_refine/det_shift x = -0.177 y = -0.223 mm
predict_refine/det_shift x = -0.175 y = -0.274 mm
predict_refine/det_shift x = -0.250 y = -0.208 mm
predict_refine/det_shift x = -0.062 y = -0.236 mm
predict_refine/det_shift x = -0.212 y = -0.267 mm
(lots more lines)
predict_refine/det_shift x = -0.132 y = -0.214 mm
predict_refine/det_shift x = -0.159 y = -0.220 mm
predict_refine/det_shift x = -0.081 y = -0.236 mm
predict_refine/det_shift x = -0.157 y = -0.270 mm
$

Note that there is some consistency among the values. You could plot these values with your favourite graphing software, or use the script provided with CrystFEL called detector-shift. Once again, you'll find it in the scripts folder, or download it here and mark it as executable like before. Then simply run it on the stream:

$ cp ~/crystfel/scripts/detector-shift .
$ chmod +x detector-shift
$ ./detector-shift tutorial.stream
Mean shifts: dx = -0.14 mm,  dy = -0.25 mm

A window should open, which shows the detector shifts as a scatter plot:

You can see that the detector position is out by about one pixel in the horizontal direction and two pixels vertically (knowing that the pixel size of the CSPAD is about 110 microns). Note that this offset has already been taken into account by the integration stages in CrystFEL, and the only reason to correct the offset is in the hope of getting a slightly higher number of indexed patterns. It's so easy to apply the offset that it's barely worth thinking about. Simply run the detector-shift script again, this time giving it your detector geometry file as well:

$ ~/crystfel/scripts/detector-shift tutorial.stream 5HT2B-Liu-2013.geom
Mean shifts: dx = -0.14 mm,  dy = -0.25 mm
Applying corrections to 5HT2B-Liu-2013.geom, output filename 5HT2B-Liu-2013-predrefine.geom
default res 9097.525473

The updated geometry file is called 5HT2B-Liu-2013-predrefine.geom, as the script tells you. Use this geometry file for further processing.

Even better geometry refinement can be performed using geoptimiser, but it's much more complicated to use, in fact there is a separate tutorial about it. The advantage of using geoptimiser is that it can refine the panel locations individually.

10. Index the patterns using unit cell parameters

The output stream from the previous step contains patterns indexed almost entirely using a consistent unit cell. However, there is still some "contamination", as you can see in the first line of the list of cell parameters above. This could be due to a second type of crystal in the mixture, but it's much more likely that it's simply a mis-indexed pattern. Before the intensities from the many patterns can be merged, we need to be sure that they're all indexed consistently. You can do this by telling indexamajig the cell parameters which it should match each pattern against.

To do this, you need to add the cell parameters to the unit cell file, and then tell indexamajig to do the matching. Simply change the indexing method to mosflm-axes-latt, i.e. change raw to axes, and update 5ht2b.cell like this:.

CrystFEL unit cell file version 1.0

lattice_type = orthorhombic
centering = C
a = 61.70 A
b = 122.8 A
c = 168.1 A
al = 90 deg
be = 90 deg
ga = 90 deg

Note the addition of the cell parameters, which came from the Unit Cell Explorer in step 8. If you have a recent version of CrystFEL, you'll find an option to save the unit cell file directly from cell_explorer, under the File menu. However, make sure you check the contents of the file and apply some all-important crystallographic intelligence!

$ indexamajig -i files.lst -g 5HT2B-Liu-2013-predrefine.geom --peaks=hdf5 --int-radius=3,4,5 -o tutorial.stream --indexing=mosflm-axes-latt -p 5ht2b.cell
This is what I understood your unit cell to be:
orthorhombic C, unique axis ?, right handed.
a      b      c            alpha   beta  gamma
 61.70 122.80 168.10 A     90.00  90.00  90.00 deg
a =  6.170e-09  0.000e+00  0.000e+00 m
b =  7.519e-25  1.228e-08  0.000e+00 m
c =  1.029e-24  1.029e-24  1.681e-08 m
a* =  1.621e+08 -9.924e-09 -9.924e-09 m^-1 (modulus  1.621e+08 m^-1)
b* =  0.000e+00  8.143e+07 -4.986e-09 m^-1 (modulus  8.143e+07 m^-1)
c* =  0.000e+00  0.000e+00  5.949e+07 m^-1 (modulus  5.949e+07 m^-1)
Cell representation is crystallographic, direct space.
Prepared indexing method 0: mosflm-axes-latt-nocell
   1 indexable out of   24 processed ( 4.2%),    1 crystals so far.   24 images processed since the last message.
Too few paired peaks (9) after refinement.
Too few paired peaks (7) to refine orientation.
  25 indexable out of   75 processed (33.3%),   25 crystals so far.   51 images processed since the last message.
  38 indexable out of  123 processed (30.9%),   38 crystals so far.   48 images processed since the last message.
  54 indexable out of  176 processed (30.7%),   54 crystals so far.   53 images processed since the last message.
(...)
1574 indexable out of 5363 processed (29.3%), 1574 crystals so far.   55 images processed since the last message.
1585 indexable out of 5414 processed (29.3%), 1585 crystals so far.   51 images processed since the last message.
1600 indexable out of 5469 processed (29.3%), 1600 crystals so far.   55 images processed since the last message.
1612 indexable out of 5522 processed (29.2%), 1612 crystals so far.   53 images processed since the last message.
1627 indexable out of 5575 processed (29.2%), 1627 crystals so far.   53 images processed since the last message.
1643 indexable out of 5632 processed (29.2%), 1643 crystals so far.   57 images processed since the last message.
Too few paired peaks (8) after refinement.
1654 indexable out of 5683 processed (29.1%), 1654 crystals so far.   51 images processed since the last message.
Too few paired peaks (9) to refine orientation.
Too few paired peaks (7) to refine orientation.
1663 indexable out of 5743 processed (29.0%), 1663 crystals so far.   60 images processed since the last message.
Final: 5775 images processed, 1666 had crystals (28.8%), 1666 crystals overall.
$

This indexing run will produce the results we will merge, so let it run to completion. This is a good time to move your work to a higher performance machine, if you have one available. For example, I ran this step on a single 32-core analysis node using -j 32 (not shown in the command line above), and this allowed all 5775 patterns to be processed in about eight minutes. Note the much large number of patterns processed in each of the status messages compared to before!

Note also the use of the refined geometry file from the previous step. If you were to run detector-shift on the new script, you should see that the points in the scatter graph would cluster around the origin. Try it!

11. Evaluate the quality of the indexing

The "final" indexing yield in the previous step was 1666 out of 5775, or 29%. This is higher than the figure of 21.5% quoted by the original paper, so we're doing well! The indexing rate could possibly be increased further by using more indexing methods, for example by adding dirax-axes to the list of methods (--indexing=mosflm-axes-latt,dirax-axes). For many situations, it also helps to try MOSFLM both with and without prior lattice type information (--indexing=mosflm-axes-latt,mosflm-axes-nolatt). There are many other possibilities, depending on which programs you have available.

The indexing yield depends a lot on the quality of the patterns, and it can seem artificially low if there are many blank patterns (wrongly identified as "hits" by the hit-finder), or many low-quality patterns which are technically "hits" but not reasonably "indexable" or useful in reality.

Once indexamajig has finished, you can use the check-near-bragg script to examine the indexing results. This script works exactly like check-peak-detection, except it shows the locations of the peaks that were successfully "predicted" and integrated after indexing instead of those detected by the peak detection. Copy it from your CrystFEL distribution folder, or download it here.

$ cp ~/crystfel/scripts/check-near-bragg .
$ chmod +x check-near-bragg
$ ./check-near-bragg tutorial.stream -g 5HT2B-Liu-2013.geom
Extra arguments for hdfsee: -g 5HT2B-Liu-2013.geom
Viewing cxidb-21-run0132/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0132_010310_df17.h5
Viewing cxidb-21-run0132/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0132_010310_df11.h5
Viewing cxidb-21-run0132/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0132_010311_dfc5.h5
Viewing cxidb-21-run0132/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0132_010311_e097.h5
^C
$

Just as before, you can add extra arguments for hdfsee to the command line or edit the script to set your own defaults. Also as before, press Ctrl+C in the terminal from which you ran check-near-bragg to stop the cycle of new hdfsee windows being opened.

To evaluate the quality of the indexing, you should try to look for regions in the pattern where there are regular patterns of spots — for example lines, grids or circles — and see if the pattern of predicted spot locations (which are circled) agree with them or not. If the unit cell is small, this can be quite difficult. Don't worry if absent spots are circled at higher resolution, because indexamajig by default integrates reflections all the way to the edge of the detector regardless of the actual resolution limit of the diffraction (this behaviour can be altered if desired by using --integration=rings-rescut, or the high-resolution predictions can be removed at the merging stage).

If not many patterns could be indexed, a good course of action is to examine the peaks like in step 6, but this time looking at only the patterns which could not be indexed:

$ ./check-peak-detection --not-indexed tutorial.stream -g 5HT2B-Liu-2013.geom
Extra arguments for hdfsee: -g 5HT2B-Liu-2013.geom
Viewing cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003712_4e09.h5
Viewing cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003717_55a7.h5
Viewing cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003730_684f.h5
Viewing cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003823_b32b.h5
Viewing cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003831_bd8d.h5
Viewing cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003832_bead.h5
^C
$

Or, looking at only the patterns which could be indexed:

$ ./check-peak-detection --indexed tutorial.stream -g 5HT2B-Liu-2013.geom
Extra arguments for hdfsee: -g 5HT2B-Liu-2013.geom
Not showing cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003712_4e09.h5
Not showing cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003717_55a7.h5
Not showing cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003730_684f.h5
Not showing cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003823_b32b.h5
Not showing cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003831_bd8d.h5
Not showing cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003832_bead.h5
Not showing cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003832_bf5b.h5
Not showing cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003834_c195.h5
Not showing cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003835_c2c7.h5
Not showing cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003844_d09b.h5
Not showing cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003851_da07.h5
Not showing cxidb-21-run0131/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0131_003900_e66d.h5
Not showing cxidb-21-run0132/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0132_010304_d69b.h5
Not showing cxidb-21-run0132/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0132_010305_d7c1.h5
Not showing cxidb-21-run0132/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0132_010306_d8bd.h5
Not showing cxidb-21-run0132/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0132_010310_deff.h5
Viewing cxidb-21-run0132/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0132_010310_df17.h5
Viewing cxidb-21-run0132/data1/LCLS_2013_Mar23_r0132_010310_df11.h5
^C
$

You might notice some trends, such as weaker patterns or poorer peak detection in the patterns which could not be indexed. In this case, you might choose to optimise the peak detection even further.

12. Check for detector saturation

An unfortunate feature of some detectors used at FEL facilities is that the dynamic range is quite small. There will probably be many saturated reflections ("overloads"), and you need to exclude these when you merge the data. Recent versions of CrystFEL include a script, called peakogram-stream, which can help you judge the maximum intensity to allow for a reflection. You can download the script here. Run it on your stream, like this:

$ ./peakogram-stream -i tutorial.stream

A graph like this should appear:

The vertical axis represents the highest pixel value in each reflection and the horizontal axis represents resolution. There is one point for every reflection in the stream, and the colour scale represents the density of points in areas where they are very concentrated. The horizontal red line has been added for illustration. See the dense "cloud" of points just above it? Those are the saturated reflections. The density is higher in the cloud because those reflections in fact have higher intensities than the detector can measure, so they appear to have lower values than they should, and get clustered around the maximum value. The reason it's a cloud and not a hard cutoff is that the images have had "pedestal" values subtracted from each pixel, and the pedestal values vary from pixel to pixel, panel to panel and even day to day. You can see, as shown by the position of the red line, that you would have to reject reflections peaking over 7000 detector units. Remember that value for the next step.

13. Merge the intensities

It's finally time to merge the intensities together! There are two ways to do this: a simple averaging-based ("Monte Carlo") method which will be described in this step, and a more advanced one which will be described in the next step.

To use simple Monte Carlo merging, simply run process_hkl on your stream, like this:

$ process_hkl -i tutorial.stream -o tutorial.hkl -y 222 --max-adu=7000
5775 images processed, 1666 crystals, 1666 crystals used.
$

Note that the saturation value, 7000, is given using --max-adu.

This will generate a new file, tutorial.hkl which contains the merged intensities. It's just a text file — you can examine it with a text editor.

The choice of point group, given to process_hkl with -y, was 222 in this example. The space group for the crystal structure in this tutorial is C2221, which means the point group is 222. The symmetry chart has information about indexing ambiguities, which might affect the choice of point group to use for merging. Fortunately, there are no ambiguities in this example.

mmm is the point group you arrive at if you add an inversion operation to 222. Doing this means that process_hkl will treat Friedel pairs of reflections as equivalent, increasing the quality of the data but destroying any anomalous signal which may have been present. If you were definitely not interested in any anomalous signal, you could therefore use -y mmm instead. The following point group specifications can be used in CrystFEL:

You can append _uaX to the end of any of these point group symbols, where X is a, b or c, to use a different unique axis to the default, which is c for all the point groups where this makes sense. A common mistake is to use -y 2 with a monoclinic unit cell with "unique axis b", CrystFEL will assume that c is the unique axis by default. Use -y 2_uab in that case.

Many of the most useful figures of merit in SFX,such as the self-consistency R-factor, Rsplit, are calculated by splitting the patterns into two, merging each one independently, and then comparing the two resulting sets of intensities. process_hkl offers a shortcut for this purpose. The option --even-only will cause it to ignore every second crystal, and --odd-only will make it use all the crystals ignored with --even-only. Using both options, one after the other, yields the two independent sets of intensities needed for Rsplit:

$ process_hkl -i tutorial.stream -o tutorial.hkl1 -y 222 --max-adu=7000 --even-only
5775 images processed, 2007 crystals, 1003 crystals used.
$ process_hkl -i tutorial.stream -o tutorial.hkl2 -y 222 --max-adu=7000 --odd-only
5775 images processed, 2007 crystals, 1004 crystals used.
$

The two merged half-datasets will be called tutorial.hkl1 and tutorial.hkl2, and will be used in section 14.

14. Merge the data using scaling, partiality and post-refinement

This step assumes that you're using a recent version of CrystFEL, at least version 0.6.1.

Merging algorithms for SFX data are under intense development at the moment. The common aim of all researchers in this field is to model, as accurately as possible, the physics which give rise to the diffraction pattern and then to convert the measured intensities in each pattern directly to the underlying structure factor moduli. The more accurately the diffraction physics can be modelled and corrected for, the more accurate the measurement of the structure factor moduli should be, and hence the fewer diffraction patterns should be required for success in solving a structure. However, this is not easy! Progress has, however, recently been made, as described by Uervirojnangkoorn et al. and Ginn et al. These developments are embodied in the CrystFEL program partialator.

partialator implements scaling and post-refinement using a generalised target function, a choice of partiality models, cross-validated residuals and partiality plots, and with no external reference data set. The overall program flow is described in this paper, but some aspects have developed since then, such as the inclusion of scaling in the main refinement instead of as a separate step.

If you didn't understand any of that last paragraph, don't panic! Using partialator is almost as easy as using process_hkl. Most people can expect an improvement in data quality over that from process_hkl simply by doing the following:

$ partialator -i tutorial.stream -o tutorial.hkl -y 222 --iterations=1 --model=unity --max-adu=7000
Not going to refine the unity model.
5765 images loaded, 2007 crystals.
Checking patterns.
907017 reflections went into the merge.
Residuals:  linear          linear free     log             log free
            9.524156e+06    4.873351e+05    2.111455e+05    1.052827e+04
Scaling and refinement cycle 1 of 1
166158 reflections went into the merge.
Scaling: |==================================================|
156053 reflections went into the scaling.
Log residual went from 1.040357e+05 to 7.417734e+04, 2007 crystals
Mean B = 2.207071e-20
166158 reflections went into the merge.
Scaling: |==================================================|
156053 reflections went into the scaling.
Log residual went from 7.989407e+04 to 7.156853e+04, 2007 crystals
Mean B = -7.469573e-20
166158 reflections went into the merge.
Scaling: |==================================================|
156053 reflections went into the scaling.
Log residual went from 7.913921e+04 to 7.143543e+04, 2007 crystals
Mean B = -1.884533e-19
907017 reflections went into the merge.
16 bad crystals:
  1991 OK
  16 B too big
902906 reflections went into the merge.
Residuals:  linear          linear free     log             log free
            9.412207e+06    4.205747e+05    1.786375e+05    8.968870e+03
902906 reflections went into the merge.
Residuals:  linear          linear free     log             log free
            9.412207e+06    4.205747e+05    1.786375e+05    8.968870e+03
Writing overall results to tutorial.hkl
447681 reflections went into the merge.
Writing two-way split to tutorial.hkl1 455225 reflections went into the merge.
and tutorial.hkl2
$

Most of the command line looks the same as for process_hkl, with the input stream, output file and symmetry. In addition, you have to specify which diffraction physics ("partiality") model to use (--model=unity), and how many iterations to perform of the refinement procedure which tries to maximise the agreement between the patterns by refining parameters such as the scaling factors, Debye-Waller parameters, crystal orientation and so on. The unity model actually means that no modelling should be done apart from the scaling factors and Debye-Waller parameters, so in this example we are simply performing three iterations of scaling. Nevertheless, this should still improve the data quality, which you will measure in the next step.

To try a complete modelling of the diffraction physics, change --model=unity to --model=scsphere. Since the model is now more complicated, it's not as clear that the results will always improve. Your milage may vary, and feedback is very welcome!

Perhaps needless to say, merging using partialator requires much more memory and CPU than using process_hkl. You might want to consider running this step on a dedicated analysis machine rather than your desktop, and of course you can specify -j to increase the speed by running multiple parts of the calculation in parallel on a multi-core machine.

Finally, note that you do not need to use alternate-stream when working with partialator, because it will automatically write out tutorial.hkl1 and tutorial.hkl2 for you, each of which corresponds to half the crystals in the dataset. The half-dataset filenames will always be the same as your specified output filename, suffixed with "1" and "2" for the two halves.

15. Calculate figures of merit

Use check_hkl to calculate some simple figures of merit. You'll need to provide the unit cell file, which will be used to calculate the values in resolution shells.

$ check_hkl tutorial.hkl -y 222 -p 5ht2b.cell
Discarded 0 reflections (out of 73778) with I/sigma(I) < -inf
1/d goes from 0.287854 to 5.244288 nm^-1
overall  = 0.888138
893749 measurements in total.
73778 reflections in total.
WARNING; 2 reflections had infinite or invalid values of I/sigma(I).
Resolution shell information written to shells.dat.
$ cat shells.dat
Center 1/nm  # refs Possible  Compl       Meas   Red   SNR    Std dev       Mean     d(A)    Min 1/nm   Max 1/nm
     1.361     9692     9697  99.95     267496  27.6  4.27    3724.08    3255.93     7.35       0.287      2.436
     2.752     9647     9670  99.76     155269  16.1  1.54     814.60     466.17     3.63       2.436      3.068
     3.290     9641     9667  99.73     124941  13.0  0.44     148.67      41.07     3.04       3.068      3.512
     3.688     9667     9686  99.80     127999  13.2  0.10     141.75      11.11     2.71       3.512      3.865
     4.014     9587     9701  98.82      93836   9.8  0.06     194.34       1.28     2.49       3.865      4.163
     4.294     8854     9721  91.08      57185   6.5  0.23     566.02      -9.00     2.33       4.163      4.424
     4.541     7141     9566  74.65      34751   4.9  0.14     771.48       4.88     2.20       4.424      4.657
     4.763     5297     9729  54.45      19611   3.7 -0.11    1788.55       2.45     2.10       4.657      4.869
     4.967     3414     9693  35.22      10618   3.1 -0.20    1025.45     -23.10     2.01       4.869      5.064
     5.155      838     9631   8.70       2043   2.4  2.14    2518.91     -87.33     1.94       5.064      5.245
$

The columns are, in order from left to right: the centre of the resolution bin in inverse nanometres, the number of reflections in the resolution bin, the number of possible reflections (taking into account the point group symmetry and systematic absences due to the centering, but not the systematic absences due to glide planes and screw axes), the completeness in percent, the total number of measurements of all reflections in this bin, the mean number of measurements per reflection, the mean signal to noise ratio, the standard deviation of all the intensities in this shell, the mean of all intensities in the shell, the centre of the resolution bin in Angstroms, and finally the minimum and maximum values of 1/d for the bin in inverse nanometres.

Notice that, by default, CrystFEL integrates reflections all the way out to the edge of the detector, in the hope of bringing out very weak signals through the very large averaging process. check_hkl will divide the entire resolution range of your data up into shells, which unless your crystals consistently diffracted right to the edge of the detector probably isn't appropriate. You can restrict the resolution range to a more sensible range by using --rmin and --rmax. Both these arguments take the value of 1/d in m-1. If you have trouble thinking in reciprocal lengths, you can also use --highres and --lowres to give values in Angstroms. From the table above, it looks like the true resolution limit is somewhere in the vicinity of 3 Angstroms, so let's look again at these figures of merit from the lowest resolution up to there. There's no need to use --lowres in this case to restrict the low resolution limit:

$ check_hkl tutorial.hkl -y 222 -p 5ht2b.cell --highres=3
Discarded 0 reflections (out of 69287) with I/sigma(I) < -inf
44641 reflections rejected because they were outside the resolution range.
1/d goes from 0.288353 to 3.332871 nm^-1
overall <snr> = 1.777141
335040 measurements in total.
24646 reflections in total.
Resolution shell information written to shells.dat.
$ cat shells.dat
Center 1/nm  # refs Possible  Compl       Meas   Red   SNR    Std dev       Mean     d(A)    Min 1/nm   Max 1/nm
     0.919     2501     2505  99.84      96579  38.6  5.24    5185.31    5150.17    10.89       0.287      1.550
     1.751     2481     2481 100.00      70685  28.5  4.15    2551.36    2252.42     5.71       1.550      1.951
     2.092     2492     2492 100.00      55019  22.1  4.16    3238.65    3325.37     4.78       1.951      2.233
     2.345     2474     2477  99.88      48972  19.8  3.30    2157.21    2076.99     4.26       2.233      2.457
     2.552     2497     2505  99.68      41020  16.4  2.08    1169.64     887.50     3.92       2.457      2.646
     2.729     2465     2470  99.80      42523  17.3  1.70     634.74     456.91     3.66       2.646      2.812
     2.886     2484     2486  99.92      40431  16.3  1.23     346.37     229.94     3.47       2.812      2.960
     3.027     2468     2476  99.68      34311  13.9  0.91     231.22     122.81     3.30       2.960      3.095
     3.156     2440     2445  99.80      33405  13.7  0.63     154.31      60.56     3.17       3.095      3.218
     3.276     2503     2507  99.84      33074  13.2  0.46     126.00      37.24     3.05       3.218      3.333
$

Note that the completeness is close to 100%, even though the number of patterns is low. check_hkl is telling you that it's measured almost all the reflections at least once, but this doesn't mean that the measurements are useful at all.

The estimated standard errors of the intensity measurements, and hence the signal to noise ratio (SNR) is estimated as described in the original CrystFEL paper. The mean and standard deviation columns in the table are the mean and standard deviations of the intensities in the resolution bin. They can sometimes be useful to spot trends in overall intensity. These numbers are not directly related to the SNR or sigma(I) values!

More useful figures or merit can be calculated by comparing the two half-datasets created in either step 12 or 13. This is done using compare_hkl, which works very similarly to check_hkl. You have to specify the two reflection lists as well as which figure of merit you want to calculate. Let's try Rsplit:

$ compare_hkl tutorial.hkl1 tutorial.hkl2 -y 222 -p 5ht2b.cell --fom=rsplit --highres=3
  1/d centre Rsplit/%       nref      d / A   Min 1/nm    Max 1/nm
     0.924      20.15       2458      10.83      0.297       1.550
     1.751      24.08       2454       5.71      1.550       1.951
     2.092      27.18       2458       4.78      1.951       2.233
     2.345      32.09       2407       4.26      2.233       2.457
     2.552      51.23       2349       3.92      2.457       2.646
     2.729      63.97       2380       3.66      2.646       2.812
     2.886      91.05       2377       3.47      2.812       2.960
     3.027     135.63       2291       3.30      2.960       3.095
     3.156     227.80       2257       3.17      3.095       3.218
     3.276     325.67       2320       3.05      3.218       3.333
$

Rsplit is quite poor for this dataset, as expected for such a small number of patterns. As a general rule, below 35% is reasonable, below 20% is good and below 10% is excellent, but these are only rough guidelines.

There are a number of other figures of merit which you can calculate using compare_hkl, such as the linear correlation coefficient (using --fom=cc), which when applied in this way would correspond to CC1/2.You could also test for an anomalous signal by calculating CCano. Just for fun, let's try it now:

$ compare_hkl tutorial.hkl1 tutorial.hkl2 -y 222 -p ../5ht2b.cell --highres=3 --fom=ccano
tutorial.hkl1: 62396 reflections, resolution range 33.68 to 1.91 Angstroms (0.29691 to 5.24429 nm^-1).
tutorial.hkl2: 63012 reflections, resolution range 34.74 to 1.91 Angstroms (0.28785 to 5.23884 nm^-1).
0 reflection pairs rejected because either or both versions did not have Bijvoet partners.
2565 reflection pairs rejected because they were centric.
44626 reflection pairs accepted.
Accepted resolution range: 0.298686 to 5.054949 nm^-1 (33.48 to 1.98 Angstroms).
Relative scale factor = 0.942238, relative B factor = 1.068317 A^2
A scale factor greater than 1 means that the second reflection list is weaker than the first.
A positive relative B factor means that the second reflection list falls off with resolution more quickly than the first.
Overall CCano = 0.0241603
$ cat shells.dat
  1/d centre    CCano       nref      d / A   Min 1/nm    Max 1/nm
     0.925  0.0553656       1051      10.82      0.299       1.551
     1.751  0.0635778       1115       5.71      1.551       1.951
     2.092 -0.0041369       1131       4.78      1.951       2.233
     2.345  0.0068311       1104       4.26      2.233       2.457
     2.552 -0.0101484       1054       3.92      2.457       2.646
     2.729  0.0301614       1094       3.66      2.646       2.812
     2.886 -0.0063918       1083       3.47      2.812       2.960
     3.027 -0.0222246       1020       3.30      2.960       3.095
     3.156  0.0017413       1010       3.17      3.095       3.218
     3.276  0.0312199       1037       3.05      3.218       3.333
$

Not a convincing anomalous signal, as expected for this sample, wavelength and quantity of data.

Note that compare_hkl also accepts the --highres argument to restrict the resolution range to one that's sensible for the specific data set.

16. Export data to CCP4, XSCALE and others

The reflection lists (files ending in .hkl here, but that naming is only a convention) are also plain text, so you can almost certainly import them easily into any crystallographic software. There are scripts in the CrystFEL scripts folder for conversion into MTZ and XSCALE formats: create-mtz and create-xscale respectively. These scripts are templates for you to modify, because you need to set things like the dataset name for the MTZ file, and the space group. Download (create-mtz or create-xscale) or copy the files to your folder and edit them. To force you to edit them first, they won't run until you delete the warning at the top of the script.

$ cp ~/crystfel/scripts/create-mtz .
$ chmod +x create-mtz
$ nano create-mtz
(set dataset name, project name, lattice parameters, symmetry etc)
$ ./create-mtz tutorial.hkl
 Input: tutorial.hkl
Output: tutorial.mtz
Running 'f2mtz'...
Done.
$ cp ~/crystfel/scripts/create-xscale .
$ chmod +x create-xscale
$ nano create-xscale
(set dataset name, project name, lattice parameters, symmetry etc)
$ ./create-xscale tutorial.hkl > tutorial-xds.hkl
Unrecognised: 'CrystFEL reflection list version 2.0'
Unrecognised: 'Symmetry: 222'
Unrecognised: '   h    k    l          I    phase   sigma(I)   nmeas'
Unrecognised: 'End of reflections'
$

Note that you must redirect the output from create-xscale to a new file (tutorial-xds.hkl). You can safely ignore the "Unrecognised" messages from create-xscale — these are normal.

17. Conclusion

Congratulations! You've successfully processed a data set using CrystFEL. Now it's time to process your own data.

Your next port of call should be the manual pages, which contain comprehensive information about all of the command-line options. You should also read the best practice guidelines, which should now mostly make sense to you.

Good luck!